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On road to better high-quality development

By Wang Xiaosong | China Daily | Updated: 2019-09-18 07:14
A view of Tian'anmen Square under the blue sky in Beijing, May 6, 2019. [Photo/IC]
母婴在线 预警同时要求,试点地区要健全管理制度、强化部门协同、加强家校合作,并设立专门的监督举报电话、邮箱,及时了解和解决实施过程中存在的问题。 宠物论坛 其所作所为严重危害国家主权安全,已违反宪法第52条“中华人民共和国公民有维护国家统一和全国各民族团结的义务”,也违反了香港基本法第23条的有关规定,其行为符合叛国、分裂国家、颠覆政权等罪行,是不折不扣的叛国分子。 论坛资讯 瓣叭皘琎у穝砞狥約﹁单6禩跋い瓣酚祇甶惠璶㎝琂﹚よ皐绊﹚耎癸秨秨竊㎝ぃい禩驹τ絯ぃ穦超闽玛瓣だ甶ボい瓣祇甶獺㎝﹚瓣產膥尿よ耎秨癸翠盿ㄓ诀笿翠Τ荷еゎ忌睹祇甶タ瓂笆р搐诀笿承谨纷瓣產禩刚喷跋2013币笆砞ミ約狥ぱ瑉单12禩跋Ω穝糤狥默約﹁猠冻玭堵纒单6禩跋Θ滦籠狥﹁玭いよ秨承穝Ыヘ琌璶硄筁絛瞅約烩办糷Ω贝狝叭癸秨羆砰驹菠Ыい禩驹ㄓ纯踞みい瓣穦篊癸秨˙ワ硂贺踞み陪礛方癸い瓣绊蔼借秖祇甶㎝癸秨∕み粄醚ぃìㄆ龟禩驹ゼ笆穘い瓣耎癸秨∕みはτ竊еい瓣さ箋戈щ戈猭6る30ら穝坝щ戈璽睲虫秈˙耎笰穨蹦膓穨籹硑穨狝叭穨秨7る10ら瓣叭皘盽叭穦某╯膥尿秈闽祙羆キЧ到癶祙現郸8る6ら禩刚喷跋羬翠穝跋タΑ砞ミ硂ㄇ羭惫陪ボい瓣铆˙崩秈癸秨承穝矗どい瓣瓣悔紇臫㎝膙タ瓣叭皘捌羆瞶糂舃紋畊い瓣瓣悔醇玻穨痴凝穦祇量杠ボい瓣盢绊秨兵ン崩笆醇紌玻穨祇甶绊∕は癸м砃玛の玂臔竡舧瓣珹瓣ず穨い瓣щ戈の竒犁い瓣穦膥尿承硑▆щ戈吏挂ま闽猔琌穝砞ミ禩跋眏て瓣產跋禩パて驹菠ㄒ狥盢贝いら龙竒蕾約﹁盢ゴ硑癸狥幅︽刚ボ絛跋﹁场嘲羛硄め翠冻玭盢崩笆Θ瓣產玭ㄈ狥玭ㄈ跨甮いみ秨玡猽ヘ玡狥幅禬禫瓣臘どい瓣材砯禩官︸い瓣眏籔狥幅琌癸秨穝笆砞ミ約﹁冻玭禩跋狥幅秨Τ耎い瓣カ初搭禩驹癸い瓣ぃ紇臫Ω穝砞禩跋Τ躬纘癸翠逼狥默約﹁冻玭禩跋よА矗す砛翠緿盡穨禩刚喷跋約﹁矗秨臥翠緿厚︹硄笵禩刚喷跋㎝承穨翠緿矗ㄑ挂﹡痙㎝ッ﹡痙獽狥默絋翴す砛翠緿狝叭砏﹚ミ縒戈洛励诀篶ら玡玡瞏翠瞷狝叭穨跋さ盢逼货じチ刽癩現戈ノや翠緿獵玡祇甶癸翠緿獵ぃ承穨顶琿穨倒ぉぃ祘戈硂ㄇ逼は琈瓣產耎癸秨いぃа翠瓣產е硉祇甶ó翠箇痙畒翠戳ㄓ常琌羛么瓣產㎝爵假㎝怠瓣產绊﹚耎癸秨矗硉翠盢ㄓ穝近祇甶诀癸更螟硔诀笿翠莱荷еゎ忌睹確タ盽縩伐磕瓣產祇甶Ы瓣產耎癸秨だだㄉ祇甶 宠物论坛 拓石镇 论坛资讯 西大桥头 母婴在线 下份

Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China's industrial structure has gone through several significant changes. In 1949, China was a typical agricultural country, with the primary, secondary and tertiary industry accounting for 58.5 percent, 25.9 percent and 15.6 percent of its GDP.

The national economy recovered after three years of tenuous efforts, following which China introduced planned economy.

From 1958 to 1978, China strengthened its industrial structure. For instance, during the First Five-Year Plan (1953-57), China optimized its industrial structure by focusing on the core task of facilitating socialist industrialization.

During this period, China's industrial structure was generally unbalanced, as the development of the primary industry seriously lagged behind the global level, the secondary industry developed at an excessively fast pace and the tertiary industry developed at a relatively slow rate. But despite having an imbalanced industrial structure before 1978, China had built a relatively sound and independent industrial structure and economic system.

The launch of reform and opening-up in 1978 boosted China's economic development; as a result, the country's industrial structure began improving at a rapid pace. The period between 1978 and 1992 saw the Chinese economy transitioning from planed economy to market economy, which significantly changed the resource distribution pattern. During this period, the primary industry grew from 102.75 billion yuan to 586.66 billion yuan, the secondary industry from 174.52 billion yuan to 1.17 trillion yuan, and the tertiary industry from 87.25 billion yuan to 935.74 billion yuan.

Between 1993 and 2003, China deepened reform and opening-up. The reform of State-owned enterprises injected new vitality into large-scale SOEs, while smaller SOEs developed at a faster rate thanks to restructuring. This period also saw China further opening up its economy to the outside world, more actively participating in the international division of labor and enjoying the dividends of globalization.

After 2003, the proportion of agriculture in China's GDP declined sharply, with the proportion of industry remaining stable and that of the service sector increasing sharply. The agricultural, industrial and service sectors accounted for 12.8 percent, 46.0 percent and 41.2 percent of China's GDP.

China experienced an overheated economy from 2004 to 2007, and encountered serious natural disasters and the global financial crisis in 2008. By 2009, China's industrial structure had further improved following fluctuations and adjustments, and the agricultural, industrial and service sectors accounted for 10.3 percent, 46.2 percent and 43.5 percent of its GDP.

In 2012, for the first time the tertiary industry's share of GDP equaled that of the secondary industry-at 45.3 percent.

By the end of last year, the share of the tertiary industry in GDP had increased to 52.2 percent, reflecting the characteristics of the post-industrialization economic structure-in which the tertiary industry accounts for more than 50 percent of national GDP.

Since the launch of reform and opening-up, the primary industry has seen a drastic decline while the secondary industry's share in GDP has been around 40 percent, which shows the latter remains a significant driver of China's economy.

In general, the transformation of its industrial structure has made China the world's second-largest economy and the largest commodity exporter. The commodity export structure of China, too, has undergone a drastic change, with the proportion of manufactured goods in China's overall exports increasing from 48.3 percent in 1980 to 88.8 percent in 1997 and to 95.1 percent in 2012.

The rapid growth of its manufacturing industry made China the "factory of the world", and gradually the "factory of the world for high-tech products".

And China is expected to further optimize its industrial structure to realize even better high-quality development.

The author is a researcher at the National Academy of Development and Strategy and a professor of economics at Renmin University of China. The views don't necessarily represent those of China Daily.

  
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